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Overview of Japan's Defense Policy 2002
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     Ever since the end of World War II, Japan has determined never to relive the horror of war and has been endeavoring to make itself into a peaceful nation. This pamphlet describes various items ranging from the basic concept of Japan's defense policy to the latest topics such as measures taken by Japan against terrorism and the response to suspicious boats and armed spy agent so that a reader can easily understand the overview of Japan's defense policy in the meantime. It also describes, in a relatively detailed manner, the nation's contributions to the international community to which the Defense Agency (JDA) has been attaching importance in recent years.
     This pamphlet is intended widely for those currently engaged in national security affairs and others who are interested in Japan's defense policies. We hope that this pamphlet is helpful in enabling them to understand Japan's defense policies and contributes to enhance the trustworthy relationship and the transparency in the Asia-Pacific region.




I.   The Basic Concept of Japan's Defense Policy
[The Basis of Defense Policy] 
[The Significance of the Japan-U.S. Security-Arrangements] 

II.  Defense Policies in Recent Years
[The National Defense Program Outline]
[Measures against terrorism]
[Response to suspicious boats and armed spy agents]
[Response to Biological and Chemical Weapon]

III. For a More Stable Security Environment
[International Peace Cooperation Work and International Disaster Relief Operations]
[Defense Exchange/Security Dialogue and Multilateral Exercise]
[Cooperation in the Area of Disarmament and Arms Control]



I. The Basic Concept of Japan's Defense Policy 

[The Basis of Defense Policy] 
     The defense policy Japan has pursued under the Constitution is based on the "Basic Policy for National Defense", adopted by the National Defense Council and approved by the Cabinet in May 1957. This Basic Policy defined the objective of national defense as below;
"To prevent direct and indirect aggression, but once invaded, to repel such aggression, thereby preserving the sovereignty and peace of Japan based upon democracy".

     To achieve this objective, the policy proclaimed the following principles:

[1]  Promotion of efforts for peace, such as international cooperation
[2]  Establishment of the foundation for national security through measures designed to stabilize the livelihood of the people.
[3]  Development of an efficient defense capability
[4]  Adherence to the Japan-U.S. Security-Arrangements.

     Under the Basic Policy for National Defense, Japan adheres to the basic defense policies as shown below:

[1]  Exclusively defense-oriented policy
[2]  Not becoming a military power that might pose a threat to other countries.
[3]  Adherence to the Three Non-Nuclear Principles of "not possessing nuclear weapons, not producing nuclear weapons, and not permitting the introduction of nuclear weapons into Japan"
[4]  Ensuring civilian control
[5]  Firm maintenance of the Japan-U.S. Security-Arrangements.
[6]  Building a modest defense capability.


[The Significance of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements]
     If a country intends to secure its peace and independence through its own will and power alone, it would be forced to build a watertight system of defense strong enough to cope with every eventuality, ranging from a war involving the use of nuclear weapons and different types of invasion to threats or intimidation backed up by military force. It would not, however, be economically feasible for Japan to have and maintain such a defense system on its own account, and nor, first of all, could it be an appropriate political stance for Japan to take.
     Therefore, Japan has opted to build a security system with no gaps using appropriate defense power and to secure the safety of our nation by building up a bilateral alliance with the United States, which shares the basic sense of value such as respect for freedom and human rights and democracy with Japan and has common interest in maintenance of the peace and security in the Far East and has strong economic ties as well as immense military power and by effectively functioning such deterrent power for the security of Japan. 
     Under Article 6 of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, Japan makes available for U.S. Forces the use of facilities and areas in Japan for the purpose of contributing to the security of Japan as well as international peace and security in the Far East, and the United States stations its troops in Japan. 
     Such a close relationship of cooperation between Japan and the United States based on the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements forms the basis for the engagement of the United States and the deployments of U. S. forces necessary for the peace and stability of the region surrounding Japan. Together with alliance and friendly relations between the United States and other countries of this region, the Japan-U. S. partnership continues to play a key role in securing the peace and stability of the region in the post-Cold War. 
     Even today, after the end of the Cold War, so long as there is no particular reason to change this basic concept of security, Japan believes that it must continue to adhere to the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangement.

II. Defense Policies in Recent Years

[The National Defense Program Outline] 
1.   The National Defense Program Outline specifies the defense capability of Japan as it ought to be and its detailed goal of defense build-up by taking international situation into consideration and was established in 1976. After that, it has been reviewed based upon changes in the international situation, including the end of Cold War, and the mounted expectation of the role of the Self Defense Forces, and the "National Defense Program Outline on and after FY1996" was approved and adopted in 1995.

2.   The current National Defense Program Outline specifies Japan's new defense capability as it ought to be as follows.
  Review of Defense Capability
    The Outline is intended to adhere fundamentally as stipulated in the former NDPO to the concept under which, instead of countering a military threat to Japan directly, Japan will possess the minimum defense capability necessary for an independent country so that it does not turn into a power vacuum and become an unstable factor in the region (Concept of the Basic Defense Force). The Outline states that it is appropriate, in light of the international situation, to review the scale and function of Japan's defense capability with a view to making it more streamlined, efficient and compact, and to build it designed to respond effectively to a variety of situations by providing it with the functions it requires and improving its quality, while at the same time allowing it the proper level of flexibility to deal with situational changes smoothly.

[2]    Reaffirmation of the Importance of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements
     The Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements are essential to guarantee the security of Japan, besides which they will continue to play an important role in ensuring the peace and stability of the region, surrounding Japan, and in building a more stable security environment. In view of this, the Outline emphasizes the need to implement various policy measures, including the exchange of information, consultation on policy, and the building of an effective cooperation in operational areas, in order to enhance the credibility of the Arrangements and allow them to play a fuller role.

[3]   Future Role of Defense Capability
    It goes without saying that the central role of the defense capability is "national defense". However, in view of the changes in the domestic as well as the international situation in recent years, the defense capability must also make timely and appropriate contributions to responding to "large-scale natural disasters and various other situations", and to the construction of "a more stable security environment." The Outline thus specifies these three roles as principal to the defense capability.


[Measures against Terrorism]
1.   Terrorist attacks that occurred in the United States on September 11, 2001 were serious challenges against the security of the whole international society. The Government of Japan, following the basic policy of "taking measures subjectively for fighting against terrorism as a matter of securing the safety of our nation, of strongly supporting the U.S. and of corresponding in a concerted manner with other nations of the world", enacted the Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law on October 29, 2001, and the order of dispatching the JDS troops was issued by the Minister of Defense on November 20, 2001. 
     Activities that Japan can execute pursuant to this Law include cooperation and support activities such as provision of materials and services for the forces of the U.S. and other countries, search and rescue activities to combatants in distress due to combat activities and assistance to affected people. Further, this was the first time ever since the end of World War II for the SDF to be dispatched overseas in connection with hostilities in order to engage in the logistic support such as transportation and supply.

2.    As for detailed activities, the SDF executed transportation of daily materials to Islamabad, Pakistan by C-130 transportation aircraft of the ASDF pursuant to the Law for Cooperating to the International Peace in the beginning of October 2001, that was before the enactment of the Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law, in order to assist affected people from Afghanistan based on the request by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and transported daily materials to Karachi, Pakistan by a minesweeper tender and a destroyer of the MSDF and delivered them to the UNHCR in the later part of December 2001 pursuant to the Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law. 
     And as cooperation and support activities for the U.S. forces, etc. pursuant to the Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law, the MSDF has been executing supply support by suppliers or destroyers on the Indian Ocean to the U.S. ships, etc. on and after December 2, 2001. And the ASDF has been executing domestic transportation between U.S. bases in Japan by using C-130 transportation aircraft on and after November 29, 2001 and overseas transportation to Guam, etc. on and after December 3, 2001. 
     In addition, the SDF Law was amended in October 2001 in order to further strengthen the security of facilities or areas of the U.S. forces and facilities of the SDF in Japan cases where the situation does not amount to the issuance of the order of police operations. 


[Response to Suspicious Boats and Armed Spy Agents]
1.   Generally, responses to illegal activities in times of peace, such as incidents of suspicious boats or destructive activities by armed spy agents are primarily the duty of police authorities such as the National Police Agency and the Maritime Safety Agency, and the SDF offers police authorities necessary assistance in providing transportation or and equipment. And when any case arises which is judged to be impossible or quite difficult for police authorities to respond, the SDF deals with it by maritime security operations or police operations. Further, the case falls under an armed attack from outside, the SDF will respond with defense operations. 
     Based on the lesson from the case of suspicious boats off the Noto peninsula in 1999, the Government carried out the study centered around shooting involving injury from the perspective of accomplishing the objective of stopping suspicious ships and conducting a on-board inspection. Based on the result of this study, the Government amended the SDF Law and the Maritime Safety Agency Law in October 2001.

2.    Amendment for Responding to Suspicious Ships
Based on this amendment, even when, at the time of maritime security operations, SDF personnel order a ship repeatedly to stop for the purpose of conducting appropriate on-board inspection but crew of the ship does not obey the order and resists or intends to escape and when the Minister of Defense judges that such case falls under a case that satisfies the predetermined requirements, the SDF personnel of the MSDF who are ordered to take maritime security operations, etc. are allowed, when there is reasonable reason to believe that there are no other alternatives to let the ship stop and to the extent that such use is deemed to be reasonably necessary corresponding to the case in question, to use weapons and their illegality is dismissed even if they injure a person as the result of such use.

3.   Amendment for Responding to Armed Spy Agents
(1)   Formerly, with respect to cases in which the SDF personnel, who are ordered to take policy operations, may use weapons to the extent that such use is deemed to be reasonably necessary corresponding to the case in question and their illegality is dismissed even if they injure a person as the result of such use, the following cases were approved: [1] to remove violent acts or intrusion to persons, facility or property whom or which is protected as duty and [2] to suppress or prevent violent acts or threat by a large number of gathered persons.
     Due to the amendment to the SDF Law in October 2001, a case has been newly approved, that is to suppress or prevent violent acts or threat by persons who have or who are reasonably believed to have weapons such as rifles, machine guns, cannons, chemical weapons or biological weapons.

(2)   With respect to the collection of information that is conducted before the police operations are ordered, when the police operations are expected to be ordered and illegal acts are expected to be committed by persons with weapons such as rifles or machine guns and when any special necessity is deemed to exist for collecting information that are useful to grasp the situation of such cases, the above-mentioned amendment has enabled the Minister of Defense to order, after consulting with the National Public Safety Commission and after obtaining the approval of the Prime Minister, a unit of the SDF carrying weapons to engage in such collection of information regarding such cases at the place where such persons are deemed to exist or at its neighboring places. 
     And the above-mentioned amendment has enabled the SDF personnel who engage in collection of information to use weapons during the process of performing its duty when there exist reasonable reasons to believe that the use of weapons is unavoidable and necessary to protect the life or body of himself or unit personnel engaging in its duty with himself/herself and to the extent that such use is deemed to be reasonably necessary corresponding to the case in question. On this occasion, the use of weapons shall not involve injury to any person except for the case falling under rightful self-defense or emergency evacuation.

[Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons]
.   Response to Biological Weapons
Biological weapons are characterized by [1] it can be produced easily and with low cost, [2] it has ordinarily several days of incubation period from exposure to becoming ill, [3] its use cannot be detected easily, [4] it can give a strong psychological effect even if it is not actually used and [5] it can possibly cause a large number of casualties. Therefore, there have been mounted risks of acquisition, development, production or use of biological weapons by some countries or terrorists, which may be used for attack to military targets or attack or terrorism to ordinary citizens.

(2)   Based on the lessons from the outbreak of the Tokyo subway sarin incident in 1995 and Bacillus anthracis cases in the U.S. in 2001, the Defense Agency has compiled the "Basic Concept for Dealing with Biological Weapons" in January this year and has specified the following points as the basic policy: the Agency must secure the capability to properly take action at such time as the defense operations by acquiring ability to protect own unit and that biological weapons response capability and necessary base in areas of detection, protection, decontamination, disease control, rescue and medical treatment must be maintained comprehensively and steadily under the restricted financial circumstance. 

(3)   If a biological terrorist attack arises, it is considered that police or fire fighting agencies or the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, etc. will respond primarily. The SDF will perform rescue activity for victims mainly by the chemical unit of the GSDF and the medical unit of each SDF. In detail, in addition to performing emergency transportation requested by concerned ministries and agencies, the SDF engage in such activities as transfer of patients, provision of treatment facilities and medical treatment, transportation or dissemination of preventive or treatment drug, or detection, prevention of expansion and decontamination by the disaster dispatch based on the request of prefectural governors, etc. And, according to the situation, the SDF will respond by police operation or defense operation.

2.   Response to Chemical Weapons
     If chemical terrorist attack arises, it is considered, as mentioned above, that police or fire fighting agencies, etc. will respond primarily. The SDF will be able to respond to and protect from chemical weapons by such equipment as chemical protection suit or chemical protection vehicles allocated to the chemical protection unit, etc. of the GSDF. In detail, in addition to performing emergency transportation requested by concerned ministries and agencies, the SDF engage in such activities as specification of chemical agent used by using chemical detection equipment, transfer of wounded or injured persons, decontamination or medical treatment by the medical protection unit of the GSDF and the medical units of ground, maritime and air SDF in the contaminated area by the disaster relief dispatch based on the request of prefectural governors, etc.
     Even in a case in which the action of the SDF is not required, the SDF are capable of providing equipments such as chemical protection suit or dispatching experts of chemical protection to concerned organizations.


III. For a More Stable Security Environment
[International Peace Cooperation Work and International Disaster Relief Operations]
     The Japan Defense Agency (JDA) has defined "the contribution to the building of a more stable security environment" as one of the important roles of defense capability. From this point of view, as one of various efforts to support and strengthen the peace and security of the international community, Japan is actively contributing to efforts towards international peace through international peace cooperation work. It is also contributing to the promotion of international cooperation by such international activities as disaster relief. Since the establishment of a system for international contribution activities in 1992, SDF has dispatched troops to Cambodia and Mozambique as part of United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations, and also to the former Zaire (the present Democratic Republic of Congo) as part of humanitarian international relief operations. They have also been carrying out duties such as those detailed below over recent years. 

[1]   U.N. Peace Keeping Operations by the SDF in the Golan Heights
     The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) was established pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution on the basis of the Agreement on Disengagement reached in 1974 between Israel and Syria, while from February 1996, the SDF have been sending a transportation units of GSDF to the Golan Heights to provide logistic support and activities which continue to date. The unit stations in 2 camps on either sides of the area of disengagement, and carries out the transportation of daily necessities, such as food for UNDOF activities from seaports, airports and markets to all UNDOF camps. It has also undertaken works such as the storage of goods and the repair of roads in the area of operations. In addition to the transport unit, SDF personnel have been dispatched as UNDOF Headquarters staff, and are in charge of logistic planning and public relations.

[2]   Humanitarian International Rescue Operations and U.N. Peace Keeping Operations by the SDF in East Timor
     Following the direct ballot held in East Timor in August 1999, in which whether the independence was right or not was asked, acts of destruction and violence, committed by those who opposed to the independence, occurred frequently, plunging public order into turmoil. This produced a large number of refugees and many of them outflowed also into West Timor. Then living conditions put them at high risk from a humanitarian perspective. Responding to a request from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Japan dispatched ASDF units of three C-130H transportation aircraft and 113 personnel to the Indonesian naval base in Surabaya for a period from November 1999 to February 2000 and implemented the transport of about 400 tons of aid materials to those East Timor refugees staying in West Timor at that time. This airlift operation was Japan's first humanitarian international relief operation in the Asian region.
     Further, on February 4, 2002, the United Nations requested Japan to send Japanese engineering units to replace those of Pakistan and Bangladesh in order to reorganize the military section for the establishment after the independence of East Timor of a new Peace Keeping Operations for the replacement of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). On February 5, the dispatch of the SDF units for East Timor was decided by the Security Council of Japan, and the implementation schedule, etc. for East Timor International Peace Cooperation Works was decided at the Cabinet, and the implementation of such works by the SDF units was requested by the Director General of the International Peace Keeping Headquarter. Based on such request, the Minister of Defense gave the order for organizing engineering units, etc. (the first East Timor dispatch engineering group) consisting of 680 personnel that were sent to East Timor and the order for implementing works by said units, and the deployment of units have been finished in April.

[3]   International Disaster Relief Operations by the SDF in India
     A large-scale disaster was caused by a big earthquake in Gujarat province in Western India on January 26, 2001. Numerous houses collapsed, and a large number of people were killed, wounded or missing. Concerning this disaster, in response to a request from the Indian government, ASDF dispatched the International Disaster Relief Air Transportation Party for India consisting of 78 officials and six C-130H transportation aircraft. They airlifted aid materials of 441 tents and 4,475 blankets from Japan to the air base in Bhuj City, India in February. 
     GSDF also dispatched the International Disaster Relief Supply Support Unit for India consisting of 16 officials who instructed officials of Bhuj City techniques in tent pitching and delivered the aid materials to the Gujarat Province Government. This was highly appreciated by Indian government and the other relevant officials.

2.   De-freezing of PKF Core Mission / Amendment to Regulations relating to Use of Weapons

(1)    Activities by the SDF units such as monitoring of disarmament of armed forces, stationing and patrolling in buffer zones, traffic check or disposal of abandoned weapons among the international peace cooperation works (PKF Core Mission) were "frozen" until the date stipulated by law in the process of the Diet deliberation of the International Peace Cooperation Bill. For this reason, the SDF units have cooperated only in the field of logistic support such as construction or transportation and humanitarian international relief activity and have implemented the dispatch of 6 times in 9 years in the past (at the time of December 2001) and accumulated actual achievement and experience steadily.
     Based on a fact that expectation from in and out of the country has mounted in respect of these efforts and Japan's active contribution to efforts for international peace centering the United Nations, the International Peace Cooperation Law was amended, including the "the de-freezing" of PKF core mission, in December 2001.

(2)   Further, with respect also to the use of weapons, said amendment permits SDF personnel to protect the life or body of anyone who is with them at the scene and has come under their "control" (those who are expected to follow their safety instructions) while conducting their duties and to use weapons for protection of weapons and equipments of the SDF as well as for cases in Japan.

3.   Dispatch of JDA Officials to U.N. Peacekeeping Operations Bureau
     Based on the recent increase in the number of staffs at the Peacekeeping Operations Bureau by the United Nations, the Japan Defense Agency amended the Law for Treatment of JDA Dispatched Officials in December 2001 and added designing of policy, establishment of regulation and preparation of plan concerning the United Nations peacekeeping operation at the Peacekeeping Operations Bureau of the United Nations as the works in which the JDA official could engage. The Japan Defense Agency is now under consideration as to dispatching the JDA personnel to the Peacekeeping Operations Bureau of the United Nations. 

[Defense Exchange/Security Dialogue and Multilateral Exercise]
     JDA has been actively promoting defense exchanges and security dialogues to "contribute to the establishment of a more stable security environment". To establish a more stable security environment in the international community, it is important to curb unnecessary arms build-ups, prevent the outbreak and escalation of unexpected crises by enhancing the transparency of national defense policies and military capabilities, and strengthen mutual confidence through security dialogues and defense exchanges between defense authorities. For those purposes, based on a close Japan-U.S. relationship founded on the Japan-U.S. Security-Arrangements, efforts towards bilateral and multilateral security dialogues and defense exchanges are being actively undertaken in order to enhance confidence.

1.   Japan-Republic of Korea Defense Exchanges
     The Republic of Korea (ROK) is Japan's nearest neighbor, and the two countries maintain a friendly relationship. Besides exchanging views on the various security issues of interest to the defense authorities of both countries, the deepening of mutual understanding through various forms of exchanges is useful for strengthening the friendly relations between Japan and the ROK, and will contribute toward establishing peace and security in the entire East Asia region, including the Korean Peninsula.
     In October 1998, at the Summit meeting between then-Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi and ROK President Kim Dae Jung, they declared their common determination to raise to a higher dimension the close, friendly and cooperative relations between Japan and the ROK, which have been built since the normalization of their relations in 1965, and announced "a Joint Statement on a New Japan-ROK Partnership Towards the 21st century." The two leaders welcomed bilateral security dialogues and defense exchanges at various levels, and pledged to promote such relationships. 
     On the other hand, last year, Japan-ROK defense exchanges were actually influenced to a certain degree due to the general stagnation in Japan-ROK relationships.

[1]   High-Level Exchanges
     Since 1994, the defense ministers of both countries have alternately visited one another for talks every year. The Chairman of the Joint Staff Council visited ROK in March 2000; in May 2000 the ROK Defense Minister visited Japan. In December, Administrative Vice Minister of Defense of Japan visited ROK.

[2]   Working-Level Exchanges
     In addition to holding a Japan-ROK Working-level Defense Policy Dialogue (bilateral consultations at the deputy director-general level) every year since 1994, a Japan-ROK security dialogue has been held since 1998 every year. Moreover, vigorous talks have been undertaken between the Joint Staff Council and ROK Joint Advisors Head Office, and between Japan's GSDF, MSDF and ASDF and ROK Army, Navy and Air Force. At the same time, exchanges of students and researchers have also been facilitated actively.

[3]   Unit-Level Exchanges
     In March 2001, the Commanding General of the Second Army of ROK Army visited the Western Army of the GSDF, marking the first full-fledged unit exchange between the GSDF and the ROK Army. In replying this visit, the Commanding General of the Western Army of the GSDF visited the ROK in March 2002.
Since 1994, the exchanges between the MSDF and the ROK Navy, including mutual visits by naval vessels, has been deepened. In 1999, the MSDF and the ROK Navy conducted their first joint exercise of search and rescue operations along with a mutual visit by naval vessels.
     And in 2000, transportation aircraft of the ROK armed forces visited Japan.

(2)   Japan-Russia Defense Exchanges
     Russia has a great influence upon the security not only of Europe but also of the Asia-Pacific region, and is a neighboring country of Japan. Thus, it is of the utmost importance, in light of the changes in the international situation since the end of the Cold War, to step up defense exchanges between Japan and Russia and to take measures to build mutual trust. 
     With Japan-Russia relations continuing to develop steadily in all fields since the Summit in Krasnoyarsk in 1997, steady development has also been seen in the field of defense exchanges with Russia, by JDA.
     In line with this development it was confirmed that exchanges to date between Japan and Russia in the field of security and defense were estimated positive, and that both sides were ready to further continue and deepen those exchanges in the Moscow Declaration on Building a Creative Partnership Between Japan and the Russian Federation, signed on the occasion of then-Prime Minister Obuchi's official visit to Russia in November 1998.
     Based on this, the Minister of Defense of Japan visited Russia in August 1999, and signed the Memorandum on the Construction of a Basis for Development of Dialogue and Exchange Between JDA and the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, with the acting Defense Minister of the Russian Federation; the two Ministers declared their decision to work towards improving the relationship of mutual trust and understanding.

[1]   High-Level Exchanges
     In 1996, Japan's Minister of Defense made the first-ever visit to Russia, even including the era of the Soviet era. Since then, high-level exchanges between the two countries have been conducted every year. In November 2000, the Russian Defense Minister visited Japan, and in January 2001, the Administrative Vice Minister of Defense visited Russia. In addition, the Chief of Staff of MSDF visited Russia in February last year, and the Chief of Staff of ASDF visited Russia in January 2001, enhancing the Chief of Staff-level exchanges. Further, exchanges between Chief of Staff have been facilitated, including the visit to Japan of the General Director of Russian Ground Forces and the General Commander of Russian Navy in April 2001

[2]   Working-Level Exchanges
     Regular consultations have also been held on a regular basis, such as the Joint Working Groups, where the two countries discuss over all procedures for conducting defense exchanges, and annual Japan-Russia Joint meetings to review of the status of implementation of the Japan-Russia Agreement on Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas and the Japan-Russia Staff Talks between the Secretariat for the Joint Staff Council of Japan and the General Staff Office of the Russian Federation Forces. Further, the National Institute for Defense Studies of Japan has been holding joint meeting for the exchange of defense studies with research institutions affiliated with the Russian Defense Ministry, such as the Military Strategy Research Center of the General Staff Office of the Russian Federation Forces.
     In Addition, young officers of the Russian Federation Forces visited Japan in 1999. In response to this visit, a delegation of 30 middle rank officers of JDA/SDF visited Russia in January 2001.

[3]   Unit-Level Exchange
     Ever since 1996 when the MSDF vessels visited Vladivostok, mutual visits by naval vessels of the two countries have been made annually. In September 2001, when Russian naval vessels visited Sasebo and the fourth Japan-Russia search and rescue joint exercise was conducted, Japan invited participant countries of the Western Pacific Navy Symposium (WPNS) as observers and total eight countries participated. This constituted one of important trials from the viewpoint of multilateral defense exchanges in the Asia-Pacific region. 

(3)   Japan-China Defense Exchanges
     The deepening of mutual understanding and confidence in defense-related matters with China, a country with major influence in the Asia-Pacific region, will contribute not only to the security of both countries but also to the peace and security of the Asia-Pacific region.
     At the Japan-China Summit Meeting between then-Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi and President Jiang Zemin held in 1998, they announced the "Japan-China Joint Declaration on Building a Partnership of Friendship and Cooperation for Peace and Development." Both leaders judged that security dialogues had played a positive role in increasing mutual understanding, and agreed to continue to expand exchanges in the areas of security and defense.
     On the other hand, in last year, Japan-China defense exchanges were influenced to a certain degree due to the general stagnation in Japan-China relationships. 
     Through exchanges with Chinese defense officials, the Defense Agency in particular has been seeking to promote China's understanding of Japan's defense policy and has been urging China to improve the transparency of its own military capability and defense policy.

[1]   High-Level Exchanges
     The Minister of National Defense of China made his first official visit to Japan in 1998. On this occasion, at the Japan-China Defense Ministerial Meeting, it was agreed to facilitate further defense exchanges between the two countries.
     Further, in the same year, at the Japan-China Defense Ministerial Meeting when Japan's Minister of Defense visited China, they agreed on how to facilitate future defense exchanges. Under the agreement, the Chief of General Staff of the People's Liberation Army visited Japan in April 2000, and the Chairman of Japan's Joint Staff Council visited China in June 2000. Also, the Chief of Staff of ASDF visited China for the first time in October, and in response to this visit, in February 2001, the Chief of Chinese Air Force visited Japan for the first time. And the Vice Chief of the General Staff of the People's Liberation Army visited Japan in November 2000, when a Japan-China Vice-Ministerial level meeting was held.

[2]  Working-Level Exchanges
     Since an agreement was reached between the foreign ministers of Japan and China in 1993 on opening a security dialogue, security dialogues have been held by the diplomatic and defense authorities of the two countries. Moreover, in accordance with the agreement at the aforementioned Defense Ministerial Meeting in 1998, various research exchanges have been facilitated such as exchanges in the medical field or defense study exchanges focusing on the Defense Research Institute, and also mutual visits by delegations for friendship and good-will have been carried out.

[3]   Unit-Level Exchange
     When Premier Zhu Rongji of China visited Japan in October 2000, Premier Zhu and then Prime Minister Mori of Japan agreed on mutual visits by naval vessels at an early stage, and the schedule is being coordinated as to visit by Chinese naval vessels to Japan in 2002.

(4)   Defense Exchanges with Southeast Asian Countries
     As Southeast Asian Countries are located in an important area for maritime traffic, they have close economic ties with Japan, and promoting dialogue on various security issues and enhancing mutual understanding and confidence with these countries are of great importance for both sides. In particular, among ASEAN countries in recent years, efforts to create opportunities for dialogue on political and security issues have been mounting, as demonstrated by the holding of meetings of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and it is imperative for Japan to actively involve itself in such activities.
     High-level exchanges with these countries have been continuing steadily: the Defense Minister of the Philippines visited Japan in August 2001, the Defense Minister of Singapore and the Supreme Commander of the Royal Thai Armed Forces visited Japan in September 2001 and the Minister of Defense of Japan visited Indonesia. And, in June 2001, the Chief of Staff of ASDF visited Vietnam for the first time.
     Further, working-level exchanges have been steadily facilitated: a conference of defense authorities was held between Japan and Vietnam for the first time in last year.
     Also, wide-ranging exchanges are taking place with South East Asian countries, such as exchanges of defense study or exchange of students. As for unit-level exchanges, visits by naval vessels are made frequently. The MSDF vessels visit the Southeast Asian region annually on their way of oversea training cruise and cultivate friendship with these countries. 

(5)   Defense Exchanges with Other Countries
     In order to create a more stable security environment, it is important to deepen the understanding of each other's military capability and defense policy, and build-up friendly relations. From this viewpoint, in addition to the above-mentioned neighboring countries, Japan is working towards defense exchanges with many countries including Australia and Canada, which are both members of the Asia-Pacific region, and European countries and elsewhere.
     The Vice Minister of Defense of Japan visited Australia and New Zealand in August and September 2001. And in November 2001, the Defense Minister of New Zealand visited Japan for the first time and exchanged views on defense issues. In 2002, Chairman of Joint Staff Council visited Australia and New Zealand in January and Defense Minister of France and Secretary for Defense of Australia visited Japan in February. Also, Minister of Defense of Canada visited Japan in March. Further, training squadron of the MSDF visited India and Middle-east last year and exchange of students and exchange of views on security and defense matter through regular conferences of working level have been carried out. 

(6)   Deepening Multilateral Security Dialogues
     Multilateral security dialogues help to facilitate increased trust when participants from many countries come together to discuss and exchange their views on security matters of common interest. This special characteristic allows them to grasp initiatives in a multilateral arena for peace and security, such as the deepening of mutual understanding regarding various countries' views on the global situation and on security and discussions of issues to be overcome multilaterally. JDA's efforts to promote multilateral security dialogues are summarized below.

[1]   ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
     As the only region-wide forum for political and security dialogue in the Asia-Pacific region, the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) has been steadily developing, with the scope of its activities broadening, ever since the first ARF Ministerial Meeting in 1994.
     At the second ARF Ministerial Meeting in 1995, the participating ministers agreed that ARF should take the following gradual, three-stage approach: (i) promotion of confidence-building; (ii) development of preventive diplomacy; and (iii) elaboration of approaches to solving conflicts. At the eighth ARF Ministerial Meeting in July 2001, recognizing that the ARF has played an important role in strengthening and promoting dialogue and cooperation on political and security matters in the Asia and Pacific region, it was confirmed that every member supported the further development of the ARF as such an effective forum. In addition, it was officially decided that the fifth ARF Meeting of Heads of Defense Universities/Colleges/Institutions would be held in Tokyo.
     The Defense Agency recognizes the importance of promoting confidence building among defense authorities in the ARF process for the ARF to become a forum for generating a sense of community among the countries of the region and for stabilizing the security environment of the region. From this view, the Defense Agency is continuing to work towards improving transparency of defense policies within the ARF, and increasing mutual understanding and confidence-building through a direct exchange of opinions between defense authorities.
     At the second ARF Senior Officials' Meeting (SOM) held in 1995, in order to enhance transparency of military capability and defense policies in the region, Japan presented a document describing its defense policy and proposed other member countries in the region to do likewise and this proposal was met with approval. This was the first important step toward confidence-building taken by the ARF soon after its inauguration. 
     Furthermore, the Defense Agency is actively participating in various ARF-related meetings as well as ARF ministerial meetings and is engaging in exchange with defense authorities of other member countries, as well as promoting the participation of defense authorities in the ARF process by, for example, establishing a forum where opinions can be exchanged frankly between defense authorities at the ARF Inter-Sessional Support Group (ISG) meeting held in Tokyo in 1999.

[2]   The Forum for Defense Authorities in the Asia-Pacific Region/holding of the Subcommittee
     Since 1996, JDA has held an annual Forum for Defense Authorities in the Asia-Pacific Region, providing an opportunity for a frank exchange of views on regional security issues among director-general or deputy director-general level officials in charge of defense policy planning of ARF members. A gathering of the region's national defense policy makers helps to establish a more stable security environment in the region. This forum is something more than a gathering. It is an attempt to improve the security environment in the Asia-Pacific region through the "promotion of contact among defense authorities" advocated by the ARF. This will hopefully contribute to progress in the ARF process.
     At this forum, presentations and an exchange of views are conducted about issues such as regional situations, defense policies and approaches to the confidence-building measures of each member. At the sixth meeting of the Forum held in October last year, the representatives of 19 countries and the European Union exchanged views on defense policy and contribution to the ARF of respective countries within the past one year and took up an issue of the diversified role of military as the main theme and discussed matters of PKO cooperation, piracy and the posture of defense authorities that is ought to be in the area of the control of national border. 
     Further, as a follow-up of this forum, the First Subcommittee of the Forum was held in January 2002. At this Subcommittee, intensive discussion was made on diversified role of military centered on piracy issue at Director/Colonel level.

[3]   Multilateral Seminar Held by National Defense Academy
     The 7th International Seminar on Defense Science was held in July last year. This seminar aims to achieve improvements and developments in defense education and research and to promote mutual understanding among participating countries, and teaching staff from military schools of the Asia-Pacific countries have participated since 1996. This time, a seminar was held with participation from 15 countries.
Also, in March this year, the 5th International Cadets' Conference was held. This conference was designed to help nurture cadets' international awareness and to deepen understanding among participants.

[4]   Multilateral Seminar Held by National Institute for Defense Studies
     National Institute for Defense Studies held the 8th Asia-Pacific Security Seminar in November last year. With a view to promoting mutual understanding among participating countries as well as its confidence building measures, and to improving the international awareness of JSDF personnel, the Institute has been sponsoring this seminar annually since 1994. This time, representatives from 20 countries made presentations and discussions focusing on the security order in the Asia-Pacific Region.
     Also, with a view to promoting mutual understanding on defense policies and to expanding exchanges of defense officials with South East Asian countries, the Institute has been inviting experts in security affairs from these countries for study meetings annually since 1989.
     Moreover, in response to the decision at the above-mentioned ARF Ministerial Conference, the fifth ARF Meeting of Heads of Defense Universities/Colleges/Institutions was held in August last year. With representatives of national defense college of ARF member countries attended at the same time, this conference aims to exchange views on the way of exchanges between national defense colleges of respective countries and security issues. At this time, with participation from 19 countries and the EU, views were exchanged on new role of the military and qualifications that were required.

[5]   Multilateral Seminar Held by Ground Self Defense Force
     In August last year, with the participation of students from army colleges of 6 countries in Asia-Pacific region, the GSDF held a multilateral seminar of students on command and general staff course for the first time, and discussions were made and views were exchanged, and the mutual understanding was deepened.
     Moreover, in December last year, the GSDF invited administrators who were responsible for logistics support in the armies of the United States and Europe and sponsored the 5th Meeting of Multilateral Logistics Staff Talks. The meeting aims at exchanging views on the ideal structure for logistics support system. 

[6]   Multilateral Seminar Held by Maritime Self Defense Force
     In January this year, the MSDF sponsored the 5th Asia-Pacific Naval College Seminar. This seminar aims at deepening mutual understanding through exchanges of opinions among the participants, and at contributing toward confidence building among participating countries. This time, with participation of naval academy teaching staff from 14 countries, views were exchanged on the promotion of mutual trust among naval forces.
     Also, in November last year, with participation of 12 country's naval college students mainly from South East Asia, it held a multilateral seminar of students on command and staff course and exchanged views on the present status of leadership education of each country's naval force.

[7]    Multilateral Seminar Held by Maritime Self Defense Force
     In September last year, with the participation of students from air force colleges of 6 countries in Asia-Pacific region, the ASDF held a multilateral seminar of students on command and staff course for the first time, and views were exchanged on security and role of respective countries.
     Moreover, in February this year, the ASDF sponsored the 5th International Air Force Education Seminar. This seminar is designed so that views can be exchanged on defense education by inviting staff of the air force academies of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. This time, with participants from six countries, discussion was made on training of teaching staffs at air force colleges to grasp the situation of participant countries and to deepen mutual understanding.

(7)   Multilateral Joint Exercises in the Asia-Pacific Region
     Since the year 2000, the U.S. Forces have made an effort toward carrying out multilateral exercises incorporating how to address to humanitarian challenges into existing-exercises in order to promote smooth multilateral cooperation in such areas as humanitarian assistance, disaster relief and non-combatant evacuation operation, and to enhance confidence among the nations through these activities with an eye to the contribution to peace and security of the Asia -Pacific Region. More concretely, the U.S. Forces has conducted a refugee rescue exercise within the RIMPAC since the year 2000 and hosted humanitarian assistance and multilateral joint exercise focusing on the U.N. peacekeeping operations in cooperation with Australia, the Philippines and Thailand. Under such a situation, Singapore also hosted the multilateral joint exercise such as Western Pacific marine sweeping exercise. And, this year, Japan hosted Western Pacific submarine rescue exercise for the first time.
     JDA believes Japan's participation in or hosting of such multilateral joint exercises contributes to strengthening mutual understanding and confidence among the participating countries through coordination and exchange of views in preparation for the exercises as well as to enhancing skill of SDF. For this reason, JDA makes it a principle to send observers, if it is invited and its participation is meaningful and, with respect to exercise itself, to participate in or host multilateral joint exercises, studying consistency between the exercises and the Japanese Constitution and related laws and considering balance with training and exercise that take into account the response to emergency situation of Japan.


[Cooperation in the Area of Disarmament and Arms Control]
1.   Basic Concept
     After the Cold War, various elements of dispute or conflict, which had been suppressed under the East-West confrontation, came to the surface and became obvious. Especially, after the Gulf War, general weapons, including high performance weapons or weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have been transferred or proliferated to dispute areas or areas in which elements of dispute or confrontation potentially exist in a disorderly manner, thus the risk of disturbing peace and stability is strongly recognized. 
     For the peace and stability of the international community, response to the proliferation and transfer of WMD and the means to transport them have become a task of prime concern, and it is necessary for Japan to actively contribute to efforts of the international community in the area of arms control and disarmament.
Accordingly, JDA recognizes the need for Japan to actively contribute to the efforts in the area of arms control and disarmament performed by international organizations including the U.N. from the viewpoint of the defense of Japan.

2.   Achievement of Primary Performance
(1)  Performance in Abolition of Chemical Weapons
     The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) aims to abolish chemical weapons by prohibiting production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and by making it mandatory for participating countries to dispose them. In order to ensure its practical effectiveness, CWC specifies a broad and strict inspection system. It came into force in 1997.
     Since 1980, JDA has sent chemical protection experts to the Convention's negotiating forums to contribute to the Convention's drafting process. When the convention came into force, JDA has sent GSDF chemical protection experts to OPCW (the Organization for Prohibiting Chemical Weapons) that was established in Hague, the Netherlands, to perform the inspection as stated in the Convention, one as a chief of the Inspection Bureau and the other as an inspector (the term of office expired in respect of this inspector). 

(2)   Response to the Project of Disposing Abandoned Chemical Weapons in China
     Concerning the disposal of abandoned chemical weapons in China, the Government of Japan as a whole has addressed this issue, in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention while taking into account the spirit of the Japan-China Joint Communique and the Japan-China Peace and Amity Treaty. The Defense Agency has cooperated by, for example, assigning its three officials to the Cabinet Office that is responsible for the disposal. 
     As full-fledged disposal works, excavation and collection were conducted in the city of Beian, Heilongjiang, China in September 2000 and in the city of Nanjing, Chiangsu in November 2001. At works in Beian, 10 members of GSDF personnel were dispatched there to examine cannonballs and to take temporary safety measures, as core members of the Japanese team.
     Taking lessons from these experiences, the Defense Agency is studying how to contribute to the scheduled large-scale disposal of abandoned chemical weapons (an estimated 670,000 shells including conventional ones) in the Harva district of Dunhua, Jilin.

(3)   Response to Removal of Anti-Personnel Land Mines
     Anti-personnel land mines, more than 110 million pieces of which are said to be buried all over the world, have become humanitarian issues and constitute a big barriers to the reconstruction after conflict. Since injuries and deaths caused by anti-personnel land mines continue to exist in reality as described above, and the universality of the Convention on the Prohibition of Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Land Mines is an important task, the JDA makes coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and appeals to, as the Government of Japan, countries in the Asia-Pacific region which have not ratified the Convention yet to ratify the Convention 
     And, for the purpose of the assistance of removal of anti-personnel land mines in Cambodia, JDA has recommended one retired GSDF personnel (Major) to Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA), and that retired GSDF personnel has been dispatched to the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC), which engages in the removal activity of land mines in Cambodia, as an advisor of maintenance and transportation since May 2000 within a framework of a long-term specialist of JICA.
     Further, with respect to the development of technology for removing land mines, the possible means of cooperation to the framework of development by industry, academy and government would be (i) dispatching of personnel, (ii) utilization of research results or facilities or (iii) joint research, JDA is now under study on the future response while making coordination with concerned organizations. And, considering the present status in which test places of companies or universities, etc. in Japan are limited for the development of new technology for equipment of land mines removal, etc., JDA is ready to study how to accept the detailed request from companies or universities, etc. to use training facilities, etc. 

(4)   Cooperation in the U. N. Activities for Disposal of Iraq's WMD
     After the end of the Gulf War, the United Nations organized the U.N. Special Commission (UNSCOM) in 1991 for the purpose of clearing the menace by WMD including chemical weapons, biological weapons and missiles Iraq possesses. JDA dispatched GSDF personnel who were chemical protection experts and technicians who were experts of missiles and caused them to participate in inspection or monitoring activity (five times and 9 officials in total). 
     Ever since the large-scale air bombing by the U.S. and the U.K. forces in 1998 that was caused by Iraq's entire refusal of its cooperation with UNSCOM, no inspection nor monitoring work concerning the disposal of Iraq's WMD has been done by the United Nations. In response to such a situation, the United Nations has established, based on the Security Council Resolution in 1999 and to replace existing UNSCOM, the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) that performs strengthened and continuous monitoring and operation of verification system. 
     JDA has dispatched a MSDF personnel who is a missile expert (commander) to UNMOVIC as a headquarter staff from February 2001.